Keoladeo National Park, Keoladeo National Park in Bharatpur, Keoladeo Wildlife Resorts in Bharatpur, Wildlife in Keoladeo National Park, Keoladeo Wildlife Sanctuary, Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary

Keoladeo National Park, Keoladeo National Park in Bharatpur, Keoladeo Wildlife Resorts in Bharatpur, Wildlife in Keoladeo National Park, Keoladeo Wildlife Sanctuary, Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary

Keoladeo National Park:

Area :,873 hectares

Established : 1956 as a bird sanctuary, 1981 as a national park

Keoladeo National Park:

The Keoladeo Ghana National Park or Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary lies between two of India's most historic cities, Agra and Jaipur. This north Indian sanctuary is situated in the country's northwestern state of Rajasthan, about 190 km from the national capital of Delhi.
The name Keoladeois derived from the name of an ancient Hindu temple devoted to Lord Shiva in the sanctuary. s central zone while the Hindi term 'Ghana' implies dense, thick areas of forest cover.

History (Keoladeo National Park)

Prince Bhamji of Morvi state in Gujarat converted this area into a world famous wildlife reserve. Duck shoots were organised in the area every year by the rulers of Bharatpur, in honour of Viceroy Lord Curzon and his party on 1st December, 1902. The exploits of all visiting dignitaries since 1902 have been engraved on stone plaques standing near the Keoladeo temple.

Largest number of birds (4273) were killed on 12th November, 1938, by Lord Linlithgow, Viceroy & Governor General of India and his party. After independence, this reserve was notified as a bird sanctuary but the former rulers of Bharatpur continued to enjoy their shooting rights over the area till 1972. The area was notified as a National Park in 1981 but made effective only in Novemeber,1982.
Conservation efforts originally started by Dr. Salim Ali received a further impetus when the area was deemed a national park in March 1982. In 1985, Bharatpur was accepted as a World Heritage Site.

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Sundarbans National Park, Sundarbans Wildlife National Park, Sundarbans National Park Tour, Sundarbans National ParkAttractions, Resorts in Sundarbans National Park

Sunderban National Park:
Resorts in Sundarbans National Park, Sundarbans National Park, Sundarbans National Park Tour, Sundarbans National ParkAttractions, Sundarbans Wildlife National Park
Area : Sunderbans National Park, India, 169,950 hectares (core) and 88,527 hectares (buffer).

Established : 1973 as a tiger reserve, 1978 as a national park.

Sunderban National Park:

Some believe that the name Sunderbans is derived from 'Sundri' - a plant found in the local mangroves - and 'bans'meaning forest. Others believe the name means 'beautiful forest' ('sunder' = beautiful, and 'bans' = forest). The Sunderbans, extending over an area of 1,000,000 hectares, is the world's largest delta, formed by the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghana rivers. The region has extensive mangrove forests and the contours are in a constant state of flux, caused by the monsoon flooding each year. Roughly a third of the delta is water, consisting of rivers, channels and tidal creeks up to 5 kilometers wide. The Sunderbans falls both within the India and Bangladesh, the latter having the larger share of the delta. On the Indian side there is a national park overlooking the Bay of Bengal.

The Sunderbans West, South and East wildlife sanctuaries in Bangladesh are also at the southern extremities of the delta. The Sunderbans parks are covered in mangrove forests of which there are 3 main zones, depending on the level of salt in the soil and water a freshwater zone, a moderately saline zone, and a saline zone. Fishing, timber extraction and honey collection are the main human activities allowed within the Sunderbans. The four Sunderbans national parks have been lumped together as they all share common features of the estuarine mangrove ecosystem. The main attractions of the Sunderbans are the Tiger, of which the delta harbor large reptiles like the Monitor Lizard, Estuarine Crocodile and the Olive Ridley Turtle, for which there is a conservation programme in the Indian park. The Leopard, Indian Rhinoceros, Javan Rhinoceros, Swamp Deer, Hog Deer and Water Buffalo have all become locally extinct from the delta in recent decades.

Best Season (Sunderban National Park):

The best time to visit Sunderbans is during winters between September and March.

Access(Sunderban National Park) :

The Sunderbans are not easily accessible. To get to the Sunderbans national park in India the nearest airport is Calcutta, the nearest railway station is Canning, and the nearest town is Gosaba. From the park headquarters at Canning take the country motor launch (5 hours) to Sajnekhali.

There are regular bus services from Kolkata (Calcutta) to this place. But the main areas of the sanctuary can only be accessed by riverine waterways. The best and the safest way to visit Sunderbans is on conducted tours. One can also avail the services of the private vessels from Canning, Gosaba or Basanti.

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Ranthambore National Park, Ranthambore Wildlife National Park, Resorts in Ranthambore National Park, Ranthambore National Park Tour, Ranthambore National Park Attractions

Ranthambore National Park
Ranthambore National Park, Ranthambore National Park Attractions, Ranthambore National Park Tour, Ranthambore Wildlife National Park, Resorts in Ranthambore National Park
Area : 400 sq km approx./ 39,200 hectares.

Established : 1955 as a sanctuary, 1973 as a tiger reserve, 1981 as a national park.

Ranthambore National Park:

Ranthambore National Park is situated in India's north western state of Rajasthan, near the town of Sawai Madhopur, midway between Bharatpur and Kota townships. It is surrounded by the Vindhya and Aravali hill ranges and is very near to the outer fringes of the Thar Desert. The entire area has sprawling tracts of the desert and semi-desert vegetation. Originally a hunting ground of the Maharaja of Jaipur, Ranthambore was declared a game sanctuary in 1955. In 1980, it became a national park and listed among the reserves protected under Project Tiger (1973). Presently the Kaila Devi Sanctuary, also famous for its tigers, and Mansingh Sanctuary also form part of Ranthambore Reserve

Ranthambore National Park sprawls over an estimated area of 400 sq kms. Steep crags embrace a network of lakes and rivers, and a top one of these hills, is the impressive Ranthambore Fort, built in the 10th century. The terrain fluctuates between impregnable forests and open bushland. The forest is the typically dry deciduous type, with dhok, being the most prominent tree. The entry point to the Ranthambore National Park, goes straight to the foot of the fort and the forest rest house, Jogi Mahal. The latter boasts of the second-largest banyan tree in India. The Padam Talab, the Raj Bagh Talab and the Malik Talab are some of the lakes in the area, that attract the tiger population. They have been spotted at the edges of these lakes, and Jogi Mahal itself. Old crumbling walls, ruined pavilions, wells, and other ancient structures stand witness to the region's glorious past. The entire forest is peppered with the battlements and spillovers of the Ranthambore Fort - tigers are said to frequent these ruins, too. As a result of stringent efforts in conservation, tigers, the prime assets of the Park, have become more and more active during the day. More than in any other park or sanctuary in India, tigers are easily spotted here in daylight. They can be seen lolling around lazily in the sun, or feverishly hunting down Sambar around the lakes.

Travel Tips:

Light cotton garments are recommended for the hot summer months and woolens are suitable for the winters. Entry charges for hired vehicle, guide and photo equipment are separate. These can be reserved at the Project Tiger office in Sawai Madhopur. 

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Corbett National Park,Corbett Wildl;ife National Park , Resorts in Corbett National Park, Corbett National Park Tour, Corbett National Park Attractions

Corbett National Park
Corbett National Park, Corbett National Park Attractions, Corbett National Park Tour, Corbett Wildl;ife National Park, Resorts in Corbett National Park
Total Coverage Area : 52,082 hectares.

Established : 1936 as a National Park

Originally Names As: Hailey National Park

Renamed As: Corbett National Park In 1957

Declared As: A Tiger Reserve In 1973

Jim Corbett National Park:

The Corbett National Park, where Project Tiger was launched in 1973, is regarded as India's finest national park and its major attractions are the Tiger, Indian Elephant and Leopard.Corbett national park is drained by the Ramganga river, the dam at Kalagarh forming a huge lake to the west of the national park. The park is essentially a large low valley.

A range of hills runs through the middle of the national park, roughly east to west. The forests are moist deciduous, with Sal as the dominant tree.Chir Pine trees are to be found on the higher ridges of the hills. On the low-lying areas riverine forests, with Shisham and Khair trees, are intermixed with grasslands known locally as 'Chaurs'.

Project Tiger(Jim Corbett National Park)

The overage area of the park was 520-sq-kms in 1986, and a proposed extension of 588-sq-kms is under consideration. Project Tiger, which was set up with the help of the World Wildlife Fund, was launched at Dhikala, in the Corbett National Park on April 1, 1973. This project was aimed at saving the Indian tiger from extinction. Over 50 mammals, 580 birds and 25 reptile species have been listed in the Corbett National Park.The insect life is also astounding, noticeably specially after the monsoons. But undoubtedly, the jewel of the Corbett is the Indian tiger. It was estimated that in 1984, the tiger population was 90 in this national park.

Corbett was the former hunting preserve of the Maharaja of Rewa and at present is a famous natural hub for White Tigers. White Tigers, in human and cattle population in the beginning of the 20th century led to the disturbance of this balance, and the first man-eaters started appearing. Soon the numbers of these man-eaters increased and Kumaon became famous.

The hunter Jim Corbett became famous with his leopard shooting exploits in this region. In his book "Temple Tiger", he describes how he killed the Champawat Tiger and the Panar Leopard, which had hunted 836 human beings in the first decade of this century. However from 1930s onwards, the number of tigers fell sharply with the increase in the number of hunters who belonged to the Indian royals as well British sportsmen.

The situation deteriorated rapidly and in 1971, the Indian government banned the killing of tigers. Project Tiger was started and the Jim Corbett National Park was formed - the name honoring the famous hunter of the past.

Places To See in Corbett :

Dikhala: Dhikala most well known of the popluar tourist destinations in Corbett. Dhikala offers an awesome uninterrupted panoramic view of the valley, with the Kanda ridge in the backdrop. This sight appears all the more imposing from the watchtower near Dhikala. The Tourist Complex overlooks Dhikala chaur (one of the largest remaining grasslands of the Park) and Phulai chaur. A drive through the numerous trails through chaurs is rewarded with sightings of wild elephants, chital, hog deer and numerous grassland bird species and raptors. The old rest house at Dhikala is a historic structure, having been built over a hundred years ago.

Corbett Museum: Corbett Museum at Dhangarhi where you will see the belonging and life history of Mr. Jim Corbett still intact at the museum with some of the animals at corbett national park.

Garjia Temple: 14 kms. from Ramnagar,on the way to Ranikhet, is a huge rock in the midst of river Kosi. This place has been named Garjia Devi after the deity. The temple is visited by thousands of devotees from different parts of the state. A large fair is held here on kartik Poornima. Ramnagar is the last bus terminus, from where Garjia Devi Temple is 14 kms.

Climate( Jim Corbett National Park):

As with the rest of the country, there are three well-defined seasons at the Corbett National Park. winter from November to February, summer from March to June and the rainy season the rest of the year.

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Sariska National Park, Sariska Tiger Reserve, Sariska Wildlife National Park

Sariska National Park, Sariska Tiger Reserve, Sariska Wildlife National Park

Sariska National Park:
Resorts in Sariska National Park, Sariska National Park, Sariska National Park Attractions, Sariska National Park Tour, Sariska Wildlife National Park
Area : 800 sq. km ( with a core area of 498 sq km).

Established : 1958 as a sanctuary, 1979 as a tiger reserve, 1982 as a national park.

Sariska National Park:

Sariska National Park lies in the Aravalli hills and is the former hunting preserve of the Maharaja of Alwar. Sariska itself is a wide valley with two large plateaus and is dotted with places of historical and religious interest, including the ruins of the Kankwari Fort, the 10th century Neelkanth temples, the Budha Hanumab Temple near Pandupol, the Bharthari Temple near the park office, and the hot and cold springs of Taalvriksh. The large Siliserh Lake is at the north-eastern corner. The forests are dry deciduous, with trees of Dhak, Acacia, Ber and Salar. The Tigers of Sariska are largely nocturnal and are not as easily seen as those of Ranthambhor. The park also has good populations of Nilgai, Sambar and Chital. In the evenings, Indian Porcupine, Striped Hyaena, Indian Palm Civet and even Leopard are sometimes seen. The forests are lush during and immediately following the monsoon, but during the dry months of February May there is a shortage of water and in consequence mammals are attracted to water holes. At this time of year visibility is good because of the sparse foliage. Sariska is excellent for birdwatching and has an unusually large population of Indian Peafowl.

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Gir National Park, Gir Tiger Reserve, Gir Wildlife Sanctuary

Gir National Park, Gir Tiger Reserve, Gir Wildlife Sanctuary

Gir National Park :
Gir National Park, Gir National Park Attractions, Gir National Park Tour, Gir Wildlife National Park, Resorts in Gir National Park
Location: 64 km from Junagadh and 32 km from Verawal.

Total Coverage Area: 1,412.14 sq. km./ Lion sanctuary 141,213 hectares (of which national park 35,948 hectares).

Wildlife Attractions: Asiatic Lion

Gir National Park Gujarat

The Gir National Park, was established on 18th September, 1965, as a Forest Reserve, primarily to conserve the Asiatic lion. The total area under national park status is about 2,450 hectares. It is located in the Junagadh District of Gujarat, about 65 km south-east of Junagadh city, and 90 km east of Keshod Airport, in the Kathiawar (Saurashtra) Peninsula. Sasan, with a forest rest-house, is the headquarters of the sanctuary.The Gir is a mixed deciduous type of forest with teak, ber, flame of the forest, jamun, a variety of acacia, particularly babul. It is a hilly tract with plenty of rivers, and offers the visitor long pleasant drives, through the thick forest cover.

Gir National Park is the only remaining habitat of the Asiatic lion, which has been confined to this forest, since 1884 ( about 239 lions were reported in 1985 ).The Asiatic lion is slightly smaller than its African cousin, nevertheless, a large male lion of the Gir is quite a sight to behold. The best way to observe the big cats is, of course, in their natural surroundings, at dawn and dusk, when they are on the prowl. The Forest Department does arrange lion shows every Sunday, where the spectators can watch prides of lions on the hunt.There are guided trips available, to watch these magnificent animals from a very close range.

Tourist Attractions in Gir National Park

The Gir National Park is steeped in history and folklore. It boasts of temples of great antiquity, like Kankai Mata and Tulsishyam, a place of pilgrimage with hot springs. The forest is famous for its cattle herders, the Madharis, whose buffaloes form a substantial part of the lions' meals. Extremely hospitable, the Madharis are herders, whose lifestyle has changed little over the years, and their folklore and traditions are a unique record of coexistence of humans with lions.

Wildlife viewing in the Girs is best done, by driving around the forest. The best drives from Sasan are, to Baval Chowk and Kankai, to Chodavdi and Tulsishyam, and to Kamaleshwar dam. Though a sturdy car would do, a jeep is definitely more appropriate.

Three unusual reserves, the Nalsarovar Lake and Sanctuary - home to several water-birds, the Little Rann of Kutch - home of the Indian wild ass, and the fascinating Flamingo Island, render the state of Gujarat a virtual haven for wildlife buffs.

The Topography(Gir Wildlife Sanctuary ):

The state of Gujarat has some splendid wildlife reserves that are quite out of the ordinary. The Gir National Park is the only home in India of the Asiatic Lion of which there are nearly 300 in the park. This sanctuary lies in the Gujarat peninsula in South West India and is gifted with a terrain that is rugged with low hills and the vegetation is full of mixed deciduous, with stands of Teak, Acacia, Jamun, Tendu and Dhak trees, interspersed with large patches of grasslands. On the hills of the trees are sparse and stunted.

Flora in Gir National Park:

Acacia and Banyan trees. A distinct belt of vegetation is found along the main rivers and streams. Species like the Jambu, Karanj, Umro, Vad, Kalam, Charal, Sirus and Amli are found here. These trees are mostly broad leaved and evergreen, giving the area a cool shade and the moisture content.

Climate(Gir Wildlife Sanctuary)

From the three common seasons of summer, winter and monsoon, summer takes the longest stretch, in which the average minimum and maximum temperature ranges between 10ºC to nearly 45ºC. The hottest months recorded in Gir are April and May. The rains bring some relief from the heat during the monsoons period of, starting from middle of June and September. The maximum recorded during this period in the area is around 1,866 mm and the minimum recorded being 199mm.

Because of less rainfall water always remains a critical factor in the well being of the forest. At times the waterholes are required to be replenished through water tankers from outside and the park staff maintains around 350 of such waterholes.

The Lion King (Gir National Park )

Gir Sanctuary is the last and only home of the critically endangered Asiatic Lion. These lions are a smaller more compact version of their African version, and are best viewed at dawn or dusk when they are on the move. The major difference between the two is that the African Lion appears larger than the Indian Lion because of its large and luxuriant mane.

Extension Of The Sanctuary

In the past Gir had a much bigger coverage area. After Indian government placed a total ban on killing of Lions in 1955, within the time span of three years the area estimation came around 2,560-sq-km and the Lion population was estimated at 287. Since then, the forest area very quickly got reduced in area to 1,452-sq-km. In 1965, the Gujarat government declared Gir forest as a sanctuary and in 1975; part of the sanctuary was declared as a National Park. And with the success of the protection program there is an incredible increase in the Lion population too, from 177 in 1974 to around 300 in 1995.

The main territories of this territorial predator outside Gir in Gujarat include Nagwa Beach in Diu, Sutrapada, Palitana, Mahuva, Savarkundla, Mitiyala, Keshod, Maliya Hatina, and Girnar.

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Wandur National Park in Andaman & Nicobar Island

Wandur National Park in Andaman & Nicobar Island

Wandur National Park :
Resorts in Wandur National Park, Wandur National Park, Wandur National Park Attractions, Wandur National Park Tour, Wandur Wildlife National Park
Wandur National Park, also known as Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park, comprises of about 12 islands and is located about 30 km southwest of Port Blair. the capital city of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and are also the home to Indias best marine parks.
Most of the islands in the park are densely forested; the open spaces are covered with scrub and creepers. A casual glance around and one can spot brilliant tropical flowers including orchids, broken branches and fallen leaves spread over the jungle pathways. One can also hear the bird calls, but unless in the open, it is difficult to spot the terns, gulls, ospreys, serpent crested eagles, wood pigeons and of course the swifts.

The most striking feature of all these islands is the vegetation. Very dense, it comes right down to the shore, seeming to merge into the sea. Branches and creepers overhang and dip into the seawater.


Wandur National Park has a tropical climate. There is medium to heavy rain from May to mid September and November to mid December. There is no extreme climate except rains and tropical storms in late summer, which causes heavy damage.

Flora and Fauna

These island beaches are great nestling place for growth of Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) and Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas). Several hundred Estuarine Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) can also be found here in densities inversely proportional to human populations. The Coconut Crab (Birgus latro) on the other hand is an important species found mostly on the South Sentinel Island. The Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) and Black-naped Tern (Sterna sumatrana) nest on the islands in unknown numbers, the Sooty Tern (Sterna fuscata) also breeds here. Molluscus, particularly Tridacna, are also important reef builders.

There are extensive mangrove stands around many islands although many of these have been destroyed in places.


Of all these islands Jollybuoy, which, lies towards the middle of the park, is most famous. The biggest attraction of this island is a sandy beach on its northern end. This beach is encircled by a reef, which is exposed during low tide. Walking carefully over the area one can see the tide pools and in them the sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea. sp), anemones (Heteractis crispa), starfish (Ophioderma), cowries (Cypraeidae), turbots and spider conch (Lambis).

Redskin Island
Redskin Island is another important island, which is inhabited by the deer, which were brought here by the British. Approachable by boats that land in sandy coves on either side of the island, Redskin has a large area with numerous caves along the northern cliffs. The interior is still quite densely wooded with mangrove stands along the eastern and southern creeks. Across the channel is Tarmugli, which has an extensive coral reef on the southwestern side and an idyllic diving cove at the extreme end of the reef. Nearby is Grub Island, a picturesque sand fringed island that is so small, one can walk around it.

At the southern end of the park lie the Twins. Aptly named, the two peaks rise from the deep blue sea, separated by a thin strip clean and clear water.

Another marvel of these islands is the mangrove. This hardy tree has its roots in seawater. The leaves and other debris of the mangrove form a very important source of food to the marine life. Like the reef this tree provides a natural buffer against storm waves.

Reching There:

Regular flights from Port Blair to Calcutta and Chennai are operated by Indian Airlines. One can travel to Wandur, from Port Blair, by road.

For moving inside the park, the forest department runs a launch service, which visits two or three islands daily. More enterprising parties hire motorized canoes from local fishermen and head for the less frequented areas. It is essential to take along the fisherman as a guide for safe trips.


Foreigners need a permit to visit the Andaman Islands. This can be obtained on arrival at Port Blair. The permit is valid for about 15 days. Foreigners are not permitted to visit Nicobar and other southern islands. One can apply for a permit from overseas, to the Deputy Secretary, Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. The Government of India Tourist Office in Port Blair is at Middle Point. The State Government Directorate of Information, Publicity, and Tourism at Port Blair can help the tourist with the relevant information.

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Great Himalayan National Park, Great Himalayan Wildlife Park

Great Himalayan National Park, Great Himalayan Wildlife Park

Himalayan National Park :
Great Himalayan National Park, Great Himalayan National Park Attractions, Great Himalayan National Park Tour, Great Himalayan Wildlife Park, Resorts in Great Himalayan National Park
The Great Himalayan National Park : The largest protected area in Himachal Pradesh, the park is carved out of the splendid mountain terrain of the Kullu district.
Rich coniferous forests, alpine meadows carpeted with flowers, snow-capped peaks and glaciers provide a breathtaking panorama. The secluded Sainj and Tirthan valleys harbour a variety of animals common to this area - wild mountain goats like the bharal, goral, and serow, the brown bear and predators like the leopard and the rarely seen snow leopard.

Varieties of colourful pheasants -monal, khalij cheer, tragopan and other Himalayan birds are part of its rich avian population. Trekking through the Park to Rakte Sar, the origin of the Sainj River, brings in the added pleasure of seeing wildlife in this spectacular natural environment.

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Dachigam National Park, Tourist attractions in Dachigam National Park, Dachigam Wildlife National Park

Dachigam National Park:
Dachigam National Park, Dachigam National Park Attractions, Dachigam National Park Tour, Dachigam Wildlife National Park, Resorts in Dachigam National Park
Dachigam is a wildlife sanctuary which is home to the endangered HANGUL species of the Deer in the country. dachigam is also host to other wildlife of the state viz Black/ Brown Bear, Musk Deer, leopards and migratory birds. There is a Trout fish farm also in Dachigam. It is big natural reserve which requires permissions from the Wildlife Authorities for excploration. The dense forests of Dachigam offer a brilliant view alongwith a Glacier fed rivulet flowing right through the middle.It is located only 22 kilometers from Sriniagar, the capital city of the northern state of Jammu and Kashmir. It covers an area of 141 square kilometers consisting of some of the most scenic natural beauty present on Earth. The variation in altitude is vast, ranging from 5500 ft to 14000 ft above mean sea level. Due to this vast variation, the park is very clearly demarcated into an upper and lower region. The best times to explore these two areas are summer and winter respectively. Due to the upper region's extremely harsh winter, the best months for visiting here is between the months of May and August. For the lower region, the ideal time is between September and December but is also equally rewarding in the summer months.

Dachigam is considered home to some of the unique Himalayan range of flora and fauna. Primary amongst them is the hangul or Kashmir stag, the most endangered species of red deer in the world.

The park has been a protected area since 1910, first under the care and watchful eye of the Maharaja of J & K and later under the observation of the concerned government authorities. The name of the park literally stands for "ten villages" which could be in memory of the ten villages that were relocated for it's formation. It was finally upgraded and declared a National Park in the year 1981. Although it is the last proper home of the Hangul, or Kashmir Stag, and harbours many rare species within it's borders, it was initially created to ensure clean drinking water supply for the city of Srinagar.

Dachigam is one sanctuary that cannot be seen in all it's glory with just one visit. This is due to the fact that the park changes it's entire appearance with the onset of each season, every one of which is as beautiful as the one before or the next to arrive.

Topography of Dachigam National Park:

Dachigam National park is located among the high mountains of the mighty western Himalayas. The variation in altitude is vast, ranging from 5500 ft to 14000 ft above mean sea level. Due to this vast variation, the park is very clearly demarcated into an upper and lower region. The terrain ranges from gently sloping grasslands to sharp rocky outcrops and cliffs. Part of the park lies above the tree line and this area displays its own kind of natural beauty with bare rock mountains and crevices.

Flora in Dachigam National Park

There are over fifty species of trees, twenty of shrubs and five hundred species of herbs. The principal tree species are pinus griffithii, abies pindrow, juglans regia, morus alba, betula utilis, salix spp, populus spp. prunus armeniaca, corylus colurna, quercus robur, ulmus wallichiana, aesculus indica, etc.shrubs include berberis spp, desmodium tiliaefolium, parrotiopsis jacquemontiana, indigofera heterantha etc.

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Hemis National Park - Eastern part of Ladakh - Jammu & Kashmir

Hemis National Park :
Hemis National Park, Hemis National Park Attractions, Hemis National Park Tour, Hemis Wildlife National Park, Resorts in Hemis National Park
Location : Eastern part of Ladakh, Jammu & kashmir

Total Area : 600 sq. kms.

Visiting Season : May To October

About Hemis National Park:

Hemis National Park is a high altitude protected area created in 1981 in the eastern part of the cold desert of Ladakh for the conservation and protection of its unique flora and fauna. It covers an area of 600 sq. kms in the Markha and Rumbak valleys.

The terrain surrounding the park is rocky and the thin soil cover supports a poor vegetative growth. Dry alpine pastures are present in sheltered locations and the grass growth is relatively rapid during the summer season after the snow melts from the region.

There are many U-shaped valleys, carved by the glacial actions that occurred in the past. Rivers and streams have laid a thick deposit of sand along their banks. The general elevation of the parks exact location is over 3,000 meters.

Climate in Hemis National Park) :

The climatic conditions vary from sub-arctic to arctic. Rainfall is low and the bulk of the total annual precipitation is in the form of snow. In winter the mercury drops to far below the freezing point and this tract receives very heavy snowfall, which remains on the ground for several months at a stretch. Summers are short and mild, while there is no marked rainy season.

Flora in Hemis National Park :

The flora at the Hemis High Altitude National Park is mainly alpine forest and sparse high altitude desert vegetation. This consists of trees and plants like Junipers, Myricaria, Poplar, Salix, Birch, Astragalus, Taraxacum, Leortopodium, Ephedra and many sparse grasslands.

Topography of Hemis National Park

The basic topography of the Hemis National Park is mountainous and rugged high altitude desert. The landscape is vast and makes you lose your sense of distances very easily. What seems a single kilometer away turns out to be at least 10 kilometers away. There are high cliffs with huge rocky outcrops, which are interspersed by belts of sparse high altitude vegetation.

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Kishtwar National Park, Kishtwar National Park Doda Jammu Kashmir

Kishtwar National Park :
Kishtwar National Park, Kishtwar National Park Attractions, Kishtwar National Park Tour, Kishtwar Wildlife National Park, Resorts in Kishtwar National Park
Kishtwar National Park Lies in Doda District, some 40km north-east of Kishtwar Town. It is bounded to the north by the Rinnay River, south by Kibar Nala catchment, east by the main divide of the Great Himalaya and to the west by Marwa River. 33*20'-34*00'N, 75*40'-76*10'E

Date and History of Establishment(Kishtwar National Park) Declared a national park on 4 February 1981 (Notification No. ?21/FST of 1980-81).

Area(Kishtwar National Park) 42,500ha

Land Tenure (Kishtwar National Park) State

Altitude(Kishtwar National Park) Ranges from 1,700m to ?4,800m.

Physical Features(Kishtwar National Park)

The national park encompasses the cachments of the Kiar, Nanth and Kibar nalas, all of which drain south-west into Marwa River which joins the Chenab River just above Kishtwar Town. The terrain is generally rugged and steep, with narrow valleys bounded by high ridges opening out in their upper glacial parts. The area lies in the Central Crystalline belt of the Great Himalaya. Rocks are strongly folded in places and composed mainly of granite, gneiss and schist, with the occasional bed of marble. The shallow, slightly alkaline soils are mostly alluvial with gravel deposits (Kurt, 1976; Bacha, 1986).

Climate(KKishtwar National Park)

The influence of the monsoon is weak. Mean annual rainfall at Palmar and Sirshi (1,761m), located near the periphery of the national park, is 827mm and 741mm, respectively. Preciptation is maximal and in excess of 100mm per month in March and April, and again in July and August. Most snow falls in December and January when the whole area becomes snowbound. Mean maximum and minimum temperatures recorded at Sirshi are 13*C and -7*C in January and 35*C and 11*C in July, respectively (Kurt, 1976; Bacha, 1986).

Vegetation(Kishtwar National Park)

Based on the revised classification of Champion and Seth (1968), some 13 vegetation types are represented (Bacha, 1986). In general, silver fir Abies pindrow and spruce Picea wallichiana, mixed with cedar Cedrus deodara and blue pine Pinus griffithii are predominant from 2,400m to 3,000m. Notable is the small expanse of chilgoza pina P. gerardiana in the Dachan Range. At lower altitudes (1,700-2,400m) occur nearly pure stands of cedar and blue pine, and moist temperate deciduous forest, represented by horsechestnut Aesculus indica, walnut Juglans regia, maple Acer spp., poplar Populus ciliata, hazel Corylus cornuta, bird cherry Padus cornuta, ash Fraxinus cornuta and yew Taxus wallichiana. The sub-alpine zone, from 3,000m to the tree line at 3,700m, supports mostly silver fir and birch Betula utilis forest and this merges with birch-rhododendron Rhododendron campanulatum scrub, above which is alpine pasture.

Cultural Heritage(Kishtwar National Park)

Racial groups include Thakurs, Kashmiris, Gujars, Rajputs and Brahmans (Bacha, 1986).

Local Human Population (Kishtwar National Park)

There are ? no permanent settlements but some 115 families of nomadic graziers, with 15,000 head of livestock, and an unspecified number of families from nearby villages, with 10,000 head, have grazing rights in the national park. Some agriculture is practised in peripheral areas (Bacha, 1986).

Visitors and Visitor Facilities(Kishtwar National Park)

The area is a potential tourist attraction but there are almost no facilities at present. Forest rest houses exist at Ekhala and Sirshi. An additional two, with catering facilities for tourists, are planned for the tract between Sirshi and Yurdu (Bacha, 1986).

Scientific Research and Facilities(Kishtwar National Park)


Conservation Management(Kishtwar National Park)

Kishtwar is arguably the most important cis-Himalayan area in the state on account of its fairly large size and diverse mammalian fauna, including a number of rare and endangered species. Its forests were exploited to their severe detriment up until 1948, since when logging has been scientifically managed and finally ceased with the establishment of the national park (Bacha, 1986).

The national park has recently been earmarked as one of seven snow leopard reserves under a project launched by Central Government and aimed at conserving the species, its prey populations and its fragile mountain habitat (ref.). A management plan has been prepared for the period 1986-1987 to 1989-90 (Bacha, 1986), according to which the national park will be zoned into core and buffer areas of 27,500ha and 15,000ha, respectively. No grazing will be allowed in the core zone; existing grazing rights being compensated for through payment and provision of alternative grazing grounds

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Bannerghatta National Park, Bannerghatta wildlife National Park, Wildlife attractions of Bannerghatta National Park

Bannerghatta National Park:
Bannerghatta National Park, Bannerghatta National Park Attractions, Bannerghatta National Park Tour, Bannerghatta wildlife National Park, Resorts in Bannerghatta National Park
The Bannerghatta National Park is one of the richest natural zoological reserves present in India. Situated at a distance of 22 km south of Bangalore city, this 104.27 sq km park is a major tourist attraction in the state of Karnataka.

Inside the park one can find a zoo which has a small museum, a reptile park and a theatre. Other than these, a Butterfly Park spread across an area of 30,000 sq m of land displays a unique combination of science and technology.
Being the first of its kind in India, this man-made park in Bannerghatta National Park is a great source of knowledge, especially for children since it has a butterfly conservatory, an audio-visual room and a museum. Typical tropical environment has been artificially created inside the butterfly park to carefully preserve over 20 different species of exquisite butterflies.

Another major attraction of the park is the children's corner. Also trekking enthusiasts can enjoy trekking in the Uddigebande, Hajjamana Kallu and Mirza hills.

A separate portion of the Bannerghatta National Park has been used by authorities as a reserve for those wild animals which have been rescued from various circuses.

Landscape (Bannerghatta National Park):

Covering an area of 104.27 sq km, the park is mostly covered with dense forests and scrub land. The beautiful hills of the park are dotted with many ancient temples which are frequently visited by the tourists.

The Suvarnamukhi stream that originates from the Suvarnamukhi hill runs across the park. Just 2 km away from this hill is the Suvarnamukhi pond whose water is believed to have curative powers.

Flora and Fauna in Bannerghatta National Park:

Flora: The Park has a combination of moist and dry deciduous forests in addition to thorny scrubs.

Fauna: The Park is home to wild animals such as Leopard, Lion, Zebras, Avifauna, Bengal tiger, Panthers, Porcupines, Rhinoceros, Wild boar, Elephant, White tiger, Bison, Panther, Bear and Spotted deer.

Other Information:

The journey to the park takes around 1 Hr 30 Min from Bangalore city. Since the weather condition of the park is moderate all through the year you can visit here anytime. However, the best season to visit Bannerghatta National Park is believed to be between the months of September to January.

The authorities have divided the park into separate sections of herbivorous animals and carnivorous animals. Safaris for both these sections are conducted by the KSTDC and are very popular amongst tourists.

The park remains closed on Tuesday but the visiting hours for the rest of the days of the week are from 9AM to 5PM. Bus services are easily available from Bangalore.

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Palamau National Park, Palamau Wildlife Sanctuary, Palamau Tiger Reserve, Palamau Wildlife National Park

Palamau National Park :
Palamau National Park, Palamau National Park Attractions, Palamau National Park Tour, Palamau Wildlife National Park, Resorts in Palamau National Park
Palamau on the Auranga river , 20 miles south-east of Daltonganj as the crow flies, from which the district takes its name is for historian and archaeologist the most interesting place in the district, for it was for many years the seat of the Chero chiefs and it contains the ruins of the two great forts built by them, the capture of which by Mughals and later by the British resulted in the collapse of the Chero resistance, the forts lie within the reserved forests and in order to preserve them the jungle has to be cut back at intervals .they are a favourite haunt of tigers, whose pug marks may nearly always be seen in and around the fort.The walls which are in preservation are about 5 feet in thickness and those of the old fort bear marks of cannon balls and bullets in many places.

In the new fort the Nagpuri gate is of great beauty. It is said to have been imported of great expense by Medni Roy, the greatest of the Rajas of "Palamau", after he had sacked the place of the Maharaja of Chhotanagpur ; but the side of the fort on which it was erected was declared to be unlucky, and the entrance was bricked up, the carving being left where it was. The gate has now been opened and some of the adjoining masonry has been demolished in order to preserve it. The following account is taken from the Report of the Archeological Survey, Bengal Circle in 1903-1904 : " There are two forts at Palamau, inside the jungle, close to each other. They are distinguished by the name of Purana Kila and Naya Kila, although the both appear to be of about the same age.

The style of the walls and buildings so closely resembles that at Rohtashgarh and Shergarh that both forts may safely be put down at the same time, viz., the beginning of Mughal period. The old fort is of regular shape, about one mile in circumference. The ground upon which it stands rises in terraces, the higher part is divided from the lower one by a cross wall. The walls are in places of considerable thickness, about 8' the path way on top between the battlements measuring 5'- 6". In other places they are thinner. The four gates are strongly fortified with inner and outer courts and provided with watch towers. The outer battlements of the walls are loop-holed. Inside are the remains of for two-storied houses and mosque with three domes. The inner cross wall has one gate, in front of which is a deep well cut out of the rocks with a vaulted tunnel leading down to it. The walls are built of stones and concrete, like those at Rohtashgarh and Shergarh.

The houses are plastered over and remains of paintings and stucco ornamentation are seen here and there,. In all these respects, the buildings closely agree with those in the other hill forts, already referred to. I observed one statue of Buddha close to the eastern gate and another broken Hindu or Buddhist idol, but no temple was found by me.The new fort is built around the slopes of a conical hill. There are two lines of walls. Each making up a square. The inner line clusters around the peak of the hill ; the outer line is somewhat lower down. The walls are of the same kind as in the old fort.

The outer walls are of considerable breadth, the passage along the roof between the battlements measuring 14' and the total breadth amounting to 18'.there are no separate building inside the enclosure, but the walls have galleries, open to the interior, sometimes of several stories. The most interesting object is fine stone-carved window about 15'high. There is nothing to match this either at Rohtasgarh or Shergarh. The carving is distinctly of the Mughal type. Another similar window close to it is broken and some wall near it also have fallen down and now block up the passage so that it is difficult to get a view of this excellent piece of carving". The above note still holds good.

Palamau is now often mistaken as Palamau District. It may be mentioned here that the East India Gazetteer by Walter Hamilton (1815) has the following description lf this district:--"A hilly and jungly district in the province of Jharkhand, situated between the 23rd and 25th degrees of north latitude. This is one of the least cultivated and most thinly inhabited territories in the Company's dominions, a great proportion of the land consisting of hills covered with jungle. The soil in many parts is strongly impregnated with iron.

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Kaziranga National Park, Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary, Wildlfie in Kaziranga, Kaziranga Tiger Tour, Animals in Kaziranga

Kaziranga National Park:
Kaziranga National Park, Kaziranga National Park Attractions, Kaziranga National Park Tour, Kaziranga Widlife National Park, Resorts in Kaziranga National Park
Kaziranga National Park lies on the banks of the mighty Brahmaputra River, Kaziranga National Park covers an area of approximately 430 Sq. kms with its swamps and tall thickets of elephant grass making it the ideal habitat for the Indian one-horned. The vast open country makes Kaziranga very accessible and wildlife viewing fairly pleasurable. Here one can leave in the early hours of the dawn for an elephant-back-ride.
One could see wild elephant herds roaming around or rhinos browse past visitors unconcernedly. Since Kaziranga is easily accessible, it provides a chance to see animals in the wild at close quarters, thus making a trip to this National Park a very rewarding experience. The Park lies in the flood plains of the Brahmaputra River. The Kabri Angling Hill ranges rise around the park pressing it against the Brahmaputra River, flowing as its northern boundary. Into the soup plate between the river and the ranges, flow several rivulets. The Kabri Angling Hill ranges rise around the park pressing it against the Brahmaputra River, flowing as its northern boundary. Into the soup plate between the river and the ranges, flow several rivulets. They bring down rich silt and sand, spread in small lakes, silt up the lakes to make swamp and marshes, alluvial grasslands rising to alluvial Savannah woodlands; and then as the land loses its moisture with height, rise to mixed deciduous forests and finally, to tropical evergreen forests. It is believed that if nature had not designed such a breathtakingly beautiful habitat, it would have been extremely difficult for man to create a national park with such natural diversities suited to a diverse range of animal species. Kaziranga National Park is the stronghold of the one horned rhinoceros. There are over 1000 rhinos in this reserve.

The wild elephant, another exotic animal of the region and often-found in herds number over 700 here. The wild buffalo is another attraction of the reserve and again there are over 6oo of these in the reserve. The mouse deer, the hog deer, barking deer, chinkara gazelle, bears, leopards, leopard cat, wild boars and the gaur are to be found here besides a variety of the primate family. The bird life of Kaziranga National Park is typical of the north-eastern Foothill of India.

The highlight of the bird life here are the sights of hundreds and hundreds of Pelicans, which breed here. The other birds commonly found here are Crested Serpent eagle, Pallas fishing eagle, grey - headed fishing eagle, swamp partridges, red jungle fowl, Bengal florican, bar headed goose, whistling teal, egrets, herons, black - necked stork, and open billed stork.

Wildlife Attarction in Kaziranga (Indian Rhino)

The Indian rhino properly know as the great indian one horned Rhinoceros is a desendant of an old species of rhino.despite its fearsome apperance, it is generall a peaceful animal. It is one of the two greatest success stories in rhino conservation (the other one being the Southern White Rhino in South Africa). With strict protection from Indian and Nepalese wildlife authorities, Indian Rhino...more..

Topography in Kaziranga National Park

The land is quite level all over the park, which is mainly covered by dense and tall elephant grass due to its flood-plain ecosystem .A few pockets of tropical semi-evergreen and deciduous forests also occur within the Park area. The grasslands along with scattered trees of Silk cotton (Bombax ceiba), Elephant Apple (Dillenia indica) and Indian rosewood (Dalbergia sissoo) among others give a typical savannah look akin to the sprawling wildernesses of Africa and North AmericaThese picturesque swamplands have an abundant cover of water lilies, water hyacinth and lotus. The vegetation that breaks the monotony of these grasslands and swamps are large clumps of semi-evergreen forest. The park, although quite flat in nature, is set against a backdrop of hills like the Mikir and Karbi Anglong.

Nearby Attractions(Kaziranga National Park )

There are many places which can be visited while you are staying at Kaziranga National Park .The Kakochang waterfalls is 13 kms from Bokakhat. Not far from the park are the ruins of the ancient Numaligarh. These ruins are of great archaeological importance. The tea gardens of Hathkhuli, Methoni, Difalu, Behora Borchapori are also other local attractions. Also visit the coffee and rubber plantations behind the tourist lodge.

Kaziranga National Park Visits:

The park can be visited on an Elephant back or in a Jeep. There are trips covering Mihimukh, Baguri, Hole path, Arimarah, Kohora Central path-Baguri all areas teeming with wildlife-all authentically wild.

Hours To Visit (Kaziranga National Park)

On Elephant Back: 0500 to 0600 hrs, 0630 to 0730 hrs and 1530 to 1630 hrs.
By Road : 0800 to 1100 hrs and 1400 to 1630 hrs.

Climate (Kaziranga National Park )

The climate of Kaziranga park is tropical. Summers are hot and winters cold. Take cotton clothes for summers and do not forget to pack woolens during winters. The average rainfall is 160 cms. But the monsoon months bring heavy downpours which often flood the park.

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Indravati National Park, Indravati Wildlife National Park, Wildlife in Indravati National Park

Indravati National Park :
Indravati National Park, Indravati National Park Attractions, Indravati National Park Tour, Indravati Wildlife National Park, Resorts in Indravati National Park
Indravati National Park is the finest and most famous wildlife parks of Chhattisgarh. Also the only Tiger Reserve in the state, Indravati National Park is located in Dantewada district of Chhattisgarh. The Park derives its name from the Indravati River, which flows from east to west and forms the northern boundary of the reserve with the Indian state of Maharashtra. With a total area of approximately 2799.08 sq km, Indravati attained the status of a National Park in 1981 and a Tiger Reserve in 1983 under the famous Project Tiger of India to become one of the most famous tiger reserves of India.Most of the islands in the park are densely forested; the open spaces are covered with scrub and creepers. A casual glance around and one can spot brilliant tropical flowers including orchids, broken branches and fallen leaves spread over the jungle pathways. One can also hear the bird calls, but unless in the open, it is difficult to spot the terns, gulls, ospreys, serpent crested eagles, wood pigeons and of course the swifts.

The topography of the Park mainly comprises of undulating hilly terrain with altitude ranging between 177 to 599 m above the sea level. The Park is famous for its unique and diverse wildlife and bird species including some of the most endangered species such as Wild Buffalos and Hill Mynas. A series of beautiful hill ranges with lush green vegetation and unique and varied wildlife make Indravati National Park a must visit for wildlife enthusiasts and nature lovers.

Flora and Fauna - Indravati National Park

The flora in the Indravati National Park is mainly comprises of tropical moist and dry deciduous type with predominance of the Sal, Teak and Bamboo trees. There are also rich patches of excellent grasslands providing much required fodder to Wild buffalos, Chital, Barking Deer, Nilgai, Gaurs and other herbivores of the park. The most commonly found trees in the park are Teak, Lendia, Salai, Mahua, Tendu, Semal, Haldu, Ber and Jamun. The major wildlife in Indravati National Park include the endangered Wild Buffalos, Barasinghas, Tigers, Leopards, Gaurs (Indian Bison), Nilgai, Sambar, Chausingha (four-horned Antelope), Sloth Bear, Dhole (Wild Dog), Striped Hyena, Muntjac, Wild Boar, Flying Squirrel, Porcupine, Pangolins, Monkeys and Langurs among many others. The commonly found reptiles in the park are Freshwater Crocodile, Monitor Lizard, Indian Chameleon, Common Krait, Indian Rock Python, Cobra and Russell's Viper to name a few. The Park also gives shelter to the large variety of birds of which Hill Maina is the most important species here.>

Best Season to Visit - Indravati National Park

The best season to visit the Park is from 15th December to 15th June.

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Manas National Park, Manas Wildlife National Park, Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, Wildlife Tour in Manas National park

Manas National Park :
Manas National Park, Manas National Park Attractions, Manas National Park Tour, Manas Wildlife National Park, Resorts in Manas National Park
Area(Manas National Park): 39,100 hectares/2840 sq km.

Established (Manas Tiger Reserve) : First established in 1928 as a reserve forest, the Manas National Park was designated as a tiger reserve in 1973.

Description (Manas National Park):

situated in the foothills of the Bhutanese Himalayas, is famous for its majestic tigers and the golden leaf monkey. Named after the Manas river, which separates Bhutan from India, the park has dense deciduous forests spread over an area of 2840 sq km which provide a sanctuary to twenty highly endangered species of birds and animals, including the hispid hare, pygmy hog and the red panda which can be seen occasionally at higher altitudes. The sanctuary is situated in both India and Bhutan, the two parks, both named Manas, being contiguous.

Along the Manas river and its tributaries are spreads of riverine forests as well as tall grasslands on the floodplains. To the south of the border, the Indian part of Mb has tropical forests on high ground, and riverine forests and tall grasslands on the lower plains.

Birds which can be seen here are the giant hornbills, both pied and gray varieties, pheasants, jungle fowl, scarlet minivet, partridge, florican, and a variety of water birds like the brahminy ducks, mergansers and a range of egrets, herons and pelican. Visitors to the park especially mention the stunning sight of large numbers of hornbills flying over the Manas river early mornings and evenings.

The Manas National Park in India and Bhutan are the only known home of the Golden Leaf Monkey discovered only a few decades ago. Other mammals, includethe rare and endangered hispid hare and pygmy hog. Lager mammals include the Indian elephant, gaur, water buffalo and Indian rhinoceros.

Flora in Manas National Park:

The Burma Monsoon Forests of Manas lie on the borders between the Indo-Gangetic and Indo-Malayan biogeographical realms and is part of the Brahmaputra Valley Biogeographic Province. The combination of Sub-Himalayan Bhabar Terai formation with riverine succession leading up to Sub-Himalayan mountain forest makes it one of the richest biodiversity areas in the world.

The main vegetation types are:

i) Sub-Himalayan Light Alluvial Semi-Evergreen forests in the northern parts.
ii) East Himalayan mixed Moist and Dry Deciduous forests (the most common type).
iii) Low Alluvial Savanna Woodland, and
iv) Assam Valley Semi-Evergreen Alluvial Grasslands.

Much of the riverine dry deciduous forest is at an early successional stage. It is replaced by moist deciduous forest away from water courses, which is succeeded by semi-evergreen climax forest in the northern part of the park. A total of 543 plants species have been recorded from the core zone. Of these, 374 species are dicotyledons (including 89 trees), 139 species monocotyledons and 30 are Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. The Park's common trees include Aphanamixis polystachya, Anthocephalus chinensis, Dillenia indica, S. formosum, Careya arborea, S. oblatum, Cinnamomum tamala, Gmelina arborea, Bauhinia purpurea, Mallotus philippensis, Bombax ceiba, Sterculia villosa, Syzygium cumini, D. pentagyna, Lagerstroemia parviflora, L.speciosa, Terminalia bellirica, T. chebula, Trewia polycarpa, Actinodaphne obvata, Oroxylum indicum and Bridelia spp. The Grasslands are dominated by Imperata cylindrica, Saccharum naranga, Phragmites karka, Arundo donax, Dillenia pentagyna, Phyllanthus emblica, Bombax ceiba, and species of Clerodendrum, Leea, Grewia, Premna and Mussaenda.

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Nagarhole National Park, Nagarhole Wildlife Sanctuary, Wildlife Tour in Nagarhole National Park, Resorts in Nagarhole National Park

Nagarhole National Park:
Nagarhole National Park, Nagarhole National Park Attractions, Nagarhole National Park Tour, Nagarhole Wildlife National Park, Resorts in Nagarhole National Park
Area : Nagarhole National Park 64,330 hectares.

Established: Nagarhole, 1955 as a sanctuary, 1975 as a national park

About Nagarhole National Park:

Nagarhole National Park,Nagarhole Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka Nagarhole National Park Tour,Wildlife Tour Nagarhole national park (NNP), the enchanting 247 square-mile park in Karnataka has an astonishing abundance of wildlife including large mammals such as tiger, leopard, wild elephant, dhole (Indian wild dog), and gaur (Indian bison).

Other species present are chital spotted deer, muntjac (barking deer), mouse deer, four-horned antelope, wild boar, sloth bear, hyena, mongoose, civet, otter, and more. The landscape is one of gentle slopes and shallow valleys. Dry deciduous forest trees are leafless in the summer rather than in the winter. There are grassy swamps where the soil is clayey, perennially moist, and which support a luxuriant growth of green grass all year. The change in terrain throughout the park in refreshing and the river system provides a unique wildlife viewing experience.

Nagarhole National Park derives its name from the combination of two Kannada words. 'Nagar,' meaning snake, and 'hole,' meaning streams. True to its name, quite a few serpentine streams fork through the rich tropical forests of the park. Nagarhole Park was set up in 1955. In 1975, its area was increased to include a greater expanse of forest reserve. The original forest was once an exclusive hunting ground for the erstwhile Maharajas of Mysore. The park has been recently renamed as Rajiv Gandhi NationalPark after the late Prime Minister of India.

Nagarhole National Park is counted among India. s best wildlife parks. It has a large elephant and bison population. It also hosts a variety of animal species along with approximately 250 species of birds. On its northern confines is the Kabini River and on its southern fringes is the Bandipur national park. A dam on the Kabini River and its picturesque reservoir demarcates the two national parks. During the dry season (February. June), this artificial lake attracts a large number of animals, making it an ideal spot for sighting wildlife.

Climate in Nagarhole National Park:

The summer (March. May) temperature does not cross the 33°C mark. The brief winter, which lasts from November to January, has temperature plummeting to 14°C. Monsoon is erratic, but it generally rains from June to September.

Flora in Nagarhole National Park:

The predominant vegetation in the Nagarhole National Park is of southern tropical, moist, mixed deciduous type with a substantial eastern portion intergrading into dry deciduous type. The upper tree canpy is dominated by Terminalia tomentosa is association with Tectonia grandis, Dalbergia latifolia, Pterocarpus marsupium, Lagerstroemia lanceolata, Anogeissus latifolia, Adina cordifolia, Boambax malabaricum, Schleichera trijuga, Ficus sp. and others. The lower canopy has Kydia calycina, Emblica officinalis, Gmelina arborea etc. Several shrubs belonging to Solanum, Desmodium and Helicteres sp. etc. are abundantly found but weedy shrubs like Eupatorium and Lantana now dominate.

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Bandhavgarh National Park, Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve, Bandhavgarh National Park in MP, Bandhavgarh National Park & Tiger Reserve

Bandhavgarh National Park :
Bandhavgarh National Park, Bandhavgarh National Park Attractions, Bandhavgarh National Park Tour, Bandhavgarh Wildlife National Park, Resorts in Bandhavgarh National Park
Total Coverage Area: 437 sq. kms / 44,884 hectares/ 168 sq. miles

Established: 1968 as a National Park.

Extended In: Extended in 1986.

Became A Tiger Reserve: In 1993.

About Bandhavgarh National Park

Bandhavgarh National Park is located in Umaria district of Madhya Pradesh. Bandhavgarh was declared as a national park in 1968 when the Maharaja of Rewa handed over the area to the government for it's formation. Bandhavgarh National Park consists of a core area of 105 sq km and a buffer area of approximately 400 sq km and its topography varies between steep ridges, undulating, forest and open meadows. Bandhavgarh National Park is also known for the white tiger country and has the highest tiger population density all over India.

Topography of Bandhavgarh National Park:

Much of the park is covered in Sal forest, replaced by mixed forests in the higher elevations of the hills. It is only in the slightly higher reaches that it changes to a more mixed vegetation of sali, saj, saja, dhobin etc. In the northern region of the park, there are vast stretches of grasslands and bamboo forests. A lot of this is what appears to be young bamboo, which can be seen from it's green and slim appearance. This northern region also consists of a series of rocky ridges with deep crevices cut by perennial streams. In the south, the extensions, which were included into the park in 1986, consist of low hills covered with forest but interspersed with grasslands that were formerly agricultural land. The central portion of the park, which consists of the original 106 square kilometers and the fort, is still the main sighting area. This area consists of 32 hills and also some marshy stretches divided by large grasslands and a few water bodies.

Wildlife Safari in the Bandhavgarh National Park:

Visitors to Bandhavgarh are allowed into the park twice each day for 3-hour Jeep safaris, once at dawn, and again in late afternoon. These are times when animal activity is most visible. The commonly used safari vehicles are open 4WD Gypsys, which provide the exhilaration of being one with the forests & wildlife. Driving slowly on the dirt tracks is the best way of getting around and observing the animals without alarming them. Coming across one, two and possibly more tigers on these drives, is an unforgettable moment - already enjoyed by so many satiated visitors from all over the world.

Bandhavgarh National Park (Visiting Season):

Visitors can visit the park during the time period of Mid October to mid June, still the best period to come is January-April. Park is open from 1st of October to 30th June only. After that it is closed.

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Eravikulam National Park, Eravikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Eravikulam Wildlife National Park, Wildlife in South India

Eravikulam National Park:
Eravikulam National Park, Eravikulam National Park Attractions, Eravikulam National Park Tour, Eravikulam Wildlife National Park, Resorts in Eravikulam National Park
Eravikulam Wildlife Sanctuary is a sanctuary set up for the preservation of the endangered Nilgiri Tahr. The main inhabitant of the park is Nilgiri Tahr. Now the park has the largest known population of Tahr's existing in the world. The park also shelters Atlas Moth, Elephants, Sambhar's, Gaurs, Lion-tailed Macaque, Nilgiri, Langur, Tigers and Leopards.

Spread across an area of 97 sq. kms, the park exhibits the breathtaking natural splendor of rolling grasslands and exotic flowers. Anamudi, the highest peak south of Himalayas, towers over the sanctuary in majestic pride. The Atlas Moth, largest of its kind in the world, is a unique possession of the park.

Flora in Eravikulam National Park:

Three major types of plant communities are found in the Park - grasslands, shrublands and forests. The terrain above 2000m is covered primarily by grasslands. However, there are numerous small patches of forests in hollows and gullies in these areas. The deeper valleys are extensively forested. Shrublands predominate along the bases of the cliffs and interspersed in rocky slab areas. The antibacterial Eupatorium glandulosum is found here.

Other Attractions:

Anamudi (2,695 m) is the highest peak in south India and located within the park area. This is a good place for trekking.

Climate(Eravikulam National Park)

The climate of this region is greatly influenced by the southwestern monsoon. June, July, and August are the monsoon months and this is the period when the region receives maximum rainfall while April and May are the hottest months. January and February receive little rain and the weather is generally clear during this time of the year. From September to December, the northeast monsoon brings a little rain and this period along with the months of January and February are the best time to visit this park.

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Namdapha National Park, Namdapha Tiger Reserve, Namdapha Bird Sanctuary, Namdapha Wildlife National Park & Tiger Reserve

Namdapha National Park :
Namdapha National Park, Namdapha National Park Attractions, Namdapha National Park Tour, Namdapha Wildlife National Park, Resorts in Namdapha National Park
Area of the park: 1985.23 square kilometres.
Established : 1972 as a national park, 1983 as a tiger reserve.
Longitude : 96°15' E to 96°58' E.
Latitude : 27°23' N to 27°39' N.
Altitude : 200 metres to 4571 metres.
Temperature (deg C) : Varies from 37°C to 8°C.
Rainfall : Varies from 1485 mm to 2508 mm.
Languages spoken : Tangsa, Singpho, Assamese, Hindi, English.
Bank of : Brahmaputra River

About Namdapha National Park:

Namdapha National Park has perhaps the richest diversity of flora and fauna in the Indian Subcontinent. This is because of its biogeographical location within the Indo-Chinese subregion and its great altitudinal variation, from 4,500 meters at Daphabum, highest point, to 200 meters in the lowest valleys. The park is largely mountainous and is drained by the noa-Dehing, Deban and Namdapha rivers. In the lower levels grow a tangled profusion of tropical rainforests, with huge Hollock, Hollong and Mekai trees intermixed with giant creepers, tall cane and dense bamboo stands. Higher up are the deciduous forests, with temperate and alpine forests higher still, where Oak, Magnolia, Pine, Betula and Rhododendrons grow in profusion. Namdapha is a botanical haven, with over 150 tree species and many flowers and orchids, including the Blue Vanda, one of the rarest orchids. It will be many years before Namdapha's flora is fully surveyed. Namdapha's birdlife includes the Satyr Tragopan, Kalij and Monal Pheasants, Giant Hornbill, Forest Eagle Owl and the rare White-winged Wood Duck. principal reptiles include the Indian Python, Reticulated Python and King Cobra. For mammal watchers, the park boasts no fewer than four large cats- Tiger, Leopard, Clouded Leopard and Snow Leopard. It also has a good population of the Hoolock Gibbon.

Season (Namdapha National Park):
October to April.

Access (Namdapha National Park) :

Drive to the park from Dibrugarh (140 km , 5 hours) or Gauhati (full day) airports, with flights from Calcutta and Delhi respectively. The nearest railway station is at Ledo, near Margherita (56 km).

Accommodation and facilities (Namdapha National Park)

Government Tourist Lodge, Miao,
Rest House at Namchik.
There are a few basic rest houses in Namdapha, at Haldibari. Until the infrastructure is established, this park is suited only to the most diehard mammal watchers. Movement within the park is restricted, as there are very few trails. The vegetation is dense thus limiting movement and visibility. Safaris are by 4-wheel drive vehicles, riding elephants and on foot.

Note (Namdapha National Park)

An inner-line permit is required to visit Arunachal Pradesh, which can be obtained from the Home Ministry in New Delhi 8-12 weeks in advance. Apply as early as possible.

Flora and Fauna in Namdapha National Park:

The beautiful forests possess great biodiversity of Flora and Fauna. A details study of its species and genetic variation has not yet been thoroughly done. Namdapha is Botanist's dream and it may take as long as 50 years to complete a conprehensive survey of its botanical resources. There are more than 150 timber species. The Pinus merkusi and Abies delavavi are not found elsewhere in India. One of the rarest and endangered orchids, the Blue Vanda found here. The most famous local madicinal plant Mishimi Teeta (Copti teeta), which is used by the local tribal for all kinds of diseases is available here but its export has been banned.

The diverse vegetations and habitats of Namdapha grooms diverse species of animals and birds. It is only park in the World to have the four Feline species of big cat namely the Tiger (Panthera Tigris), Leopard (Panthera Pardus), Snow Leopard (Panthera Uncia) and Clouded Leopard (Neofelis Nebulosa) and numbers of Lesser cats. A number of primate species are seen in the park, such as Assamese macaque, pig-tailed macaque, stump-tailed macaque and number of the distictive Hoolock Gibbons (Hylobates Hoolock), highly endangered and only 'ape' species found in India dwells in this impenetrable virgin forest. Of the many other important animals are the elephants, black bear, Indian Bison, several species of deers, reptiles and a variety of arboreal animals.

Tourist Interested Places in Namdapha National Park:

Firmbase: Located on the Noa-Dehing River bank 25 Km from the Deban Forest lodge. This is a popular camping site full of nature's splendours. The track leading to the idyilic spot is enveloped by luxuriant forest and it is not un common to come across birds and wild animals on the way. For camping at Firmbase, equipments and guide provided by the forest department is an unique experience.

Deban: A beautiful forest camp on the bank of the river Noa-Dihing. It is located within the boundary of Namdapha National Park. One can enjoy the scenic beauty of overlooking Noa-Dihing river. The Forest Inspection Bungalow located at Deban itself surrounded by evergreen forest over looking the river Noa-Dihing is worth-staying. It is also ideal for trekking, hiking and angling on the river Noa-Dihing.

Hornbill: Just 9 Km from Deban, this is as the name suggests is a homing ground for hornbills. Here flocks of these birds can be frequently spotted flying from one grove to another.

Gandhigram: It is situated in the southeast periphery of Namdapha. This is the remotest and the last village in India wedged China and Myanmar and is the home land of Lisu (Yobin) tribe. The village is at a distance of about 120 Km from Deban. A weeklong trek through lush jungles is more enjoyable for those having a craving for adventure.

Camera Point: This camping site, as the name suggests offers a vantage point for a breath-taking view of Namdapha and its lush green landscape.

How to Reach There:

By Air: Nearest Airport: at Mohanbari, Dibrugarh, Assam 182 km from Forest Rest House, Deban, within the Namdapha National Park area.

By Rail: Nearest long distance Railway station is Tinsukia Railway Station, Assam, 141 km from Forest Rest House, Deban, within the Namdapha National Park area. Nearest Passenger Railway station is Margherita Railway Station, Assam, 91 km from Forest Rest House, Deban, within the Namdapha National Park area.

By Road: Good motorable road is connected up to Miao which is entry point of Namdapha. The Forest Rest House , Deban, within the Namdapha National Park area is 186 km from Dibrugarh, 141 km from Tinsukia, 91 km from Margherita and 136 km from district headquarter Changlang.

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Hazaribagh National Park, Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary, Hazaribagh Wildlife National Park Jharkhand, Wildlife in Jharkhand

Hazaribagh National Park :
Hazaribagh National Park, Hazaribagh National Park  Attractions, Hazaribagh National Park  Tour, Hazaribagh Wildlife National Park, Resorts in Hazaribagh National Park
Nestling in low hilly terrain, at an average altitude of 615 meters in the Indian state of jharkhand, the Hazaribagh National Park has an abundance of wild animals like the wild boar, sambar, nilgai, chital, sloth bear, tiger and panther.

Visiting Hours(Hazaribagh National Park) :

The climate in this region is tropical with hot summers and cold winters. Temperature during the summer months touch a high of 41.1'C and a low of 19.4'C. Winter months are better and the temperature ranges between a maximum and minimum of 19.4'C and 7'C. The monsoon months are July to mid-September.

How To Get There(Hazaribagh National Park):

Air The nearest airport Ranchi (91 km) is connected with Calcutta, Patna, Lucknow and Delhi by regular Indian Airlines flights.

Rail The nearest railway station is Koderma, which is 59 km away, or alternately one can approach the park from the Hazaribagh Road railway station (67 km) on the Howrah-Delhi Grand Chord line.

Road Hazaribagh town is connected by road to Ranchi 91 km, Dhanbad 128 km, Gaya 130 km, Patna 235 km, Daltongunj 198 km, and Calcutta (via Asansol-Govindapur-Barhi) 434 km. The Hazaribagh National Park is 19 km from the Hazaribagh town. Regular bus services connect the town with Koderma, Hazaribagh Road railway station, Patna, Gaya, Ranchi, Dhanbad, Daltongunj and other nearby places.

Internal Transport (Hazaribagh National Park):

Unmetered Taxis, Auto Rickshaws, Cycle Rickshaws and Taxis are available for the park from the Hazaribagh town. The approximate charge for a taxi is Rs. 160 for a two-way journey.

Attractions(Hazaribagh National Park) :

Sighting of wild boar, sambar, nilgai, cheetal, and kakar is assured especially near the waterholes at dusk. Tigers being less in number-14 according to the 1991 census-are difficult to sight. The sanctuary stretches over 184 square km of undulating country and steep hills with dense tropical forests and grass meadows.

A 111-km road in the sanctuary takes motorists to the remotest corners and to masonry towers. Strategically located, the road offers excellent opportunities for viewing the wilds. The sanctuary is surrounded by tribal habitation. There are many watchtowers that provide perfect hideouts to see the wildlife in its true natural habitat.

Places Around (Hazaribagh National Park):

The Palamau Forest Reserve is another major wildlife sanctuary in the region. Places of the tourist interest in the vicinity include Canari Hill-5 km, Rajrappa-Falls 89 km, and Suraj Kund hot spring-72 km.

Travel Tips(Hazaribagh National Park) :

A trip to the park starts at 1700 hours from the Divisional Forest Office, West Division, Hazaribagh and it ends at 2200 hours. Charges are Rs.50 per head. Reservation can be made with the Divisional Forest Officer, West Division, Hazaribagh. Entry fees for vehicles inside the park are Bus (full)- Rs.75; Mini Bus- Rs.50; Station Wagon/Car/Jeep/Private Car- Rs.20; Motor Cycle- Rs.10 and Taxi- Rs.25. No charges are levied for guides provided with the tour operators and there is no extra fee for carrying a camera to the park. Firearms are not allowed inside the park.

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Pin valley National Park, Pin valley Wildlife National Park, Pin valley National Park wildlife sanchuary

Pin Valley National Park :
Pin Valley National Park, Pin Valley National Park Attractions, Pin Valley National Park Tour, Pin Valley Wildlife National Park, Resorts in Pin Valley National Park
Location: Pin Valley, Spiti in Himachal Pradesh
Area covered: 675 sq. kms

General Information (Pin Valley National Park):

Declared a National Park in 1987, Pin Valley is located in the cold desert region of the Spiti valley. With its snow laden unexplored higher reaches and slopes, the Park forms a natural habitat for a number of endangered animals including the Snow Leopard and Siberian Ibex. Spreading south of Dhankar in the Spiti district near the Tibetan border, the Park marks the Lahaul and Spiti divisions of the State. The elevation of the Park ranges from about 3,500 mts near Ka Dogri to more than 6,000 mts at its highest point.

Because of its high altitude and extreme temperatures, the vegetation in thearea is scant and mostly dominated by alpine trees, patches of Himalayan cedar and smatterings of several medicinal plants. In summer, flowers decorate the valley with startling hues. Along with animals, rare birds like the Himalayan Snowcock, Chukor, Snow Partridge and the Tibet Snow Finch also flourish in the area.

Steeped in history, the influence of Tibetan culture is prevalent in the surrounding areas of the Park, visible in the Buddhist lamas, shrines, monasteries and culture of its residents.

Reaching There (Pin Valley National Park):

The Park can be approached only on foot from the nearest road terminus at Mikkim. One route to Pin Valley is via Manali, Rohtang Pass and Kumzum La, while another is more commonly used via Shimla, Tapri and Kaza.

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Periyar National Park, Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Periyar Wildlife Safari, Wildlife in Periyar National Park, Periyar National Park in Kerala

Periyar National Park :
Periyar National Park, Periyar National Park Attractions, Periyar National Park Tour, Periyar Wildlife National Park, Resorts in Periyar National Park
Area: 777 sq. km.
Core: 350 sq. km.
Buffer: 427 sq. km
Established : 1950 as a sanctuary, 1978 as a tiger reserve

About Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary:

Periyar National Park is situated in the hills of the Western Ghats in the state of Kerala in SW India. The centre piece of Periyar National park is the 5,500-hectare Periyar lake formed by the construction of a dam on the Periyar river in 1895.The dam submerged low-lying forest whose dead tree trunks still jut out of the waters. Along the fringes of the lake are marshy areas with tall grasslands. This is one of the richest habitats of large mammals, as it provides both excellent cover and nourishment in the form of succulent shoots and grasses. Here it is possible to see large herds of Indian Elephant with relative ease as well as Nilgiri Langur near Aranya Niwas and the Liontail Macaque in higher areas.

The forests are tropical, a mixture of deciduous, semi-evergreen, and evergreen 'sholas', the last occurring in the moist valleys and characterised by tall trees and a closed canopy. The forests alternate with extensive patches of grasslands. Periyar's rich bird life includes the Giant Hornbill, Cormorant, Darter, Osprey and Racket-tailed Drongo. The Indian Python and King Cobra are among the reptilian fauna. Periyar has a few Nilgiri Tahr, good numbers of which may also be seen on a day excursion to nearby Eravikulam National Park near Munnar.

Main Fauna in Periyar:

In Periyar Tiger Reserve 49 species of mammals, 265 species of birds, 36 species of reptiles, 12 species of amphibians, 35 species of fishes and 160 species of butterflies have been identified so far. Some important mammals are tiger, leopard, elephant, gaur, sambar, wild dog, barking deer, lion tailed macaque, Nilgiri langur and Nilgiri tahr.

Main flora found in Periyar:

Periyar Widllife Sanctuary boasts a quite rich and diverse flora. The flora in Periyar National Park chiefly comprises of Tropical Evergreen forests (30,500ha) and Semi-evergreen forests (27,500ha) around the reservoir, and Moist-deciduous forests and Woody grasslands in the central part of the park.

The major flora in the park include the Teak, Rosewood, Terminalia, Eucalyptus, Sandalwood, Jacaranda (a hardwood timber tree with purple flowers), Mango, Jamun, Tamarind, Banyan, Pipal, Plumeria, Gulmohar and Bamboo among many others. The thick vegetation of the Periyar wildlife sanctuary provides both excellent cover and nourishment in the form of succulent shoots and grasses.

Other General Information on Periyar Sanctuary

Longitude: 76°57' and 77°25' E
Latitude: 9°16' and 9°36' N
Altitude: 100m. to 2016 m. above msl.
Rainfall: 2500 mm.
Temperature: Minimum: 15°C, Maximum: 31°C

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Marine National Park, Marine Wildlife National Park, Marine wildlife Park in Jamnagar Gujrat

Marine National Park :
Marine National Park, Marine National Park Attractions, Marine National Park Tour, Marine Wildlife National Park, Resorts in Marine National Park : Gujarat has the distinction of creating the country's first Marine National Park spread over an area of nearly 458 sq.kms. in the Gulf of Kutch, 30 km. from Jamnagar. Here corals create fantasies in stone and are the master builders of the Park. Their limestone fortresses - those found near the Pirotan Islands and the rich moist deciduous forests like those found in the dense forests of the Danes. One of the most threatened birds, the great Indian bustard finds a refuge in certain pockets of protected areas.
The world's only four-horned antelope, the chowsingha is found here in healthy numbers. One of the largest herds of blackjacks grace the grasslands of Velavadar and till recently Gujarat was the place where flamingos nested in huge numbers. Dugong, a marine mammal which resembles a seal, along with the rare Borolo species have found home in the protected areas of the Marine National Park.

Each one the work of a colony of countless tiny animals - come in an amazing variety of shapes and sizes, from the convolutedbrain coral corals that look like horns. Here you will find plants that look like animals and animals that look like plants. Turtles, shrimp, sponge, eels, sea urchin lurk among the corals and huge schools of fish create a brilliance of colors that are unknown, unseen and unimaginable to us.

There are fishes to be seen which puff-up when threatened, octopuses that mimic the color and texture of the surroundings in the blink of an eyelid so as to vanish without a trace.

There are Gobi's which clean parasites from other fish and fishes who burrow so deep only their eyes are seen. You will easily spot fishes that look like stars and spot dolphins herding schools of fish for a hearty meal. Dugong, a marine mammal which resembles a seal and the rare Boralia species are found in these protected areas. At times it seems as if every life form here is familiar with the art of magic as each seem to trick the other for food and shelter. Above the waters, mangrove plants with their tangled roots and densely packed leaves prevent land based predators from penetrating but provide scores of birds with nesting and roosting sites. There is no doubt that life in the coral reef is like witnessing a thousand rainbows in a kaleidoscopic way.

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Silent Valley National Park, Silent Valley Sanctuary, Silent Valley Wildlife National Park

Silent Valley National Park :

Resorts in Silent Valley National Park, Silent Valley National Park, Silent Valley National Park Attractions, Silent Valley National Park Tour, Silent Valley Wildlife National Park
Area: 89.52 km² (35 sq mtrs)
Established on: 15th November 1984
Sections: Sairandri, Poochipara, Neelikkal, Wallakad
Location : 40 km from Mannarkkad, Palakkad district, north Kerala
Nearest City - Palakkad
Best time to visit - December to April
The Silent Valley National Park is commonly known as Sairndhrivanam in India. Being the main attraction of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, this park is a unique example of tropical rain forest. Declared as a national park in the year 1984 by the government of India, the degradation of this park by human activities has been limited largely because of its rugged terrain and remoteness.

Landscape & Climate

Located in the Nilgiri hills of Coimbatore around the Palakkad district of Kerala (South India), the Silent Valley Park is divided from the northern and eastern plateaus of Nilgiri Mountains by high unbroken ridges. To the west the park is bounded by rough ridges whereas toward the south it gently slopes down along the Palakkad plains. Due to the presence of hills and directional winds, every region of this park receives good amount of rain during the southwest monsoon season.

The dense forest, the music of the birds and the deep gorges formed by the wild river Kunti all add up to enhance the beauty of this natural park. The best feature of this perennial river is that it has crystal clear water that never turns brown.

Fauna in Silent Valley National Park

The valley has a wide variety of peninsular mammals like tailed macaque lion, Nilgiri langur, bonnet macaque, tiger, leopard, Indian civer, ruddy mongoose, stripe-necked mongoose, otter, Malabar squirrel, Indian pangolin, Porcupine, wild boar, spotted & barking deer and gaur.

The bird population includes Indian black-crested baza, rufous bellied hawk eagle, bonelli’s hawk eagle, shaheen falcon, penisular scops owl, short-eared owl, great Indian hornbill, Ceylon frog mouth and Malay bittern to name a few. Quite a few of these are extremely rare and endemic.

Flora in Silent Valley National Park

With an area of about 90 sq km the Silent Valley Park is an abode to rich flora and fauna. It has about 1000 species of plants. The prominent flower families recorded in the Silent Valley include the Orchidaceae, Febaceae, Rubiaceae and Asteraceae. Apart from these some other new variety of flowering plants found in this natural park are Kanjaram palghatensis, Hedyotis silentvalleyensis, Porpax chandrasekharanhii, Nydnocarpus pendulus and Silentavelleya nairii.

Some of the rare varieties of ground orchid plants like Oberonia bisaccata, Eriatiagii, Liparis indiraii and Ipsea malabarica are found in this valley. The orchid varieties are almost extinct in other parks of the country. Other than this, two Sri Lankan plant varieties Scutellaria oblonga and Anodendron rhinosporum have also been recently recorded from this park.

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